Category Archives: Urologist in Noida

Urinary Incontinence And Perineal Rupture

Urinary Incontinence And Perineal Rupture

Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence is a fairly common condition among women, but they rarely talk about it on their own initiative, considering it embarrassing, shameful.
Urinary incontinence affects women 5 times more often than men. About 10-25% of women between 25-65 years old suffer from a form of urinary incontinence, the percentage increasing to 40% in women over 65 years old.

Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of urine through normal anatomical pathways, due to the bladder and/or sphincter disorders. Loss of urine may occur with exertion (coughing, sneezing) or may be accompanied by other symptoms, such as pollakiuria (frequent urination), nocturia (urination during the night), urinary urgency (urgent need to urinate).

Loss of urine is a symptom that occurs in many diseases: congenital genitourinary malformations, neurological diseases or most commonly (80% of cases), due to insufficient musculoskeletal support – suspension and uterovesis.

The diagnosis of the type of incontinence is made by the urologist in Noida, after the clinical examination and after performing specific urodynamic tests.

Rupture of the perineum

Perineal rupture is a generic, medical term that defines the relaxation of the musculoskeletal system of the perineum and is not mandatory to occur only in women who have given birth vaginally. It can also occur in women who have not given birth or at a long interval from birth to menopause.

Rupture of the perineum may not affect the patient in any way, as well as may cause sexual discomfort, sometimes to the point of frigidity or indifference of the partner; urinary incontinence at lower and lower efforts (sometimes just walking) or lowering of the pelvic organs (uterus, bladder, rectum) through the vulvar cleft, outside, is called prolapse.

The treatment of this condition can only be surgical, the operation being performed most frequently through the vagina, rarely requiring an abdominal approach. Perineal surgery can also be aesthetic: just as many women want more beautiful noses, lips or breasts, some want a more toned perineum, a tighter vaginal lumen, greater sexual satisfaction, sexual comfort as at 20 years old.

Treatment

Both perineal rupture and urinary incontinence are accentuated with age, the symptoms becoming noisier, more annoying. Therefore, it is necessary that the two diseases be diagnosed in time and thus be able to be treated properly, the therapeutic sanction being depending on the indication of the best urologist in Noida: medicinal, surgical or associated.

Cystitis treatment

How to Combat Cystitis?

Have you ever had a promising plan broken because of an uncomfortable or painful sensation in your genital area? Has it happened to you to continually want to pee and feel discomfort when urinating? Don’t worry, it’s more frequent than you might think. Cystitis is a problem that affects a high percentage of the population but has a solution if we team up with an expert urologist in Noida to combat it.

What is cystitis and how does it occur?

Cystitis is an acute inflammation of the urinary bladder due to an infection by the invasion of microorganisms. Normally responsible is the e.coli bacteria, which lives in the guts of humans and is usually harmless in most cases, except for some more dangerous strains. It is usual that the body itself discards these bacteria with urine, so it is essential to drink plenty of water (between 1 litre and a half and 2 litres per day, according to the constitution and food of each person). However, sometimes these bacteria attach to the urethral walls or bladder and multiply so quickly that they cannot all be expelled with urine. That’s when inflammation occurs that leads to cystitis.

cystitis

What are the symptoms?

The most common are discomfort and pain when urinating, burning sensation or burning in urination, urgent and/or frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine colour and strong urine odour. Other symptoms include pain in the side area, pain or discomfort when having sex and feeling fatigued. However, symptoms may vary by patient.

Are there different types of cystitis?

You can talk about bacterial or infectious cystitis, which is caused by bacterial infection, and non-infectious cystitis, which has no specific cause and is common in women of childbearing age. The latter may arise from the use of feminine hygiene sprays, spermicides or as a result of adverse reactions to certain medicinal products. It may also result from prolonged use of a catheter or complications from other existing pathologies. It is advisable to go to the best urologist in Noida to determine the origin of cystitis and the most appropriate treatment for each case.

On the other hand, sporadic cystitis can be differentiated (there is only one episode on time) or repeat cystitis (there are more than 3 episodes in a 12-month period). According to a research, 37% of women suffer at least one episode of cystitis in their lifetime and 12% suffer from them on a recurring basis.

Is it common?

It is a very common pathology, especially in women. According to the best urologist in Ghaziabad, cystitis especially affects women between the ages of 18 and 39 “coinciding with the age of maximum sexual activity in women”. He also notes that about 50-60% of women in the premenopausal phase suffer from a urinary tract infection and that, of that scale, 90% is cystitis.

However, men also experience episodes of cystitis, sometimes due to an enlarged prostate that, by slowing down urine flow, increases the risk of infection.

Cystitis is common in people who have frequent medical exams with tubes or catheters or those who need tubes. The incidence of this pathology is higher in older patients, as they progressively decrease the faculties of the nervous system to control the bladder. Similarly, in the event of a mismatch of the immune system, there is an increased risk of an episode of cystitis.

People with diabetes, hypercalcemia, or immunosuppression are considered more likely to develop episodes of cystitis.

Having cystitis is very common and can occur to anyone, however, with proper treatment and in the hands of a good urologist in Ghaziabad, it is a risk-free problem.

What treatments are available?

The first and most important thing is to go to the best urologist in Greater Noida to confirm the origin of cystitis and to consider our entire profile with blood and urine tests and any background that can provide more information.

Normally, if it is caused by a bacterium it will prescribe antibiotics and if it is caused by a virus it will prescribe antivirals. As general recommendations, urologist in Greater Noida recommends drinking large amounts of water to clean the urinary ducts well and avoid tobacco, alcohol intake and high-spice meals during episodes of cystitis.

What can I do to avoid getting cystitis or improving symptoms?

Food habits. Some foods and drinks are discouraged when the patient has an episode of cystitis, such as very strong or fermented cheeses, dairy enriched with cream, very fatty meats, sausages, bacon, black pudding, undercooked pasta, candied or frosted fruits, fruits in syrup, alcoholic beverages, coffee or tea with high theine content, confectionery products, chocolates and high fat fries. Instead, it is advisable to add to the diet natural juices, especially American cranberry, vegetables (some of them raw), fish, meats and eggs in the rations that marks a healthy diet.

Hygienic habits. In addition to proper hygiene in the genital area, it is not excessive not to eliminate the genital natural flora, but that does not be in shortening either, in the case of women it is advisable that when urinating they clean from front to back. A safety measure to prevent cystitis is to urinate after sex, eliminating potential toxins that access the urethra and cause infection. Finally add that it is necessary not to stay long periods of time with a wet or damp swimsuit in the genital area, which is a conducive focus to give rise to infections.

urinary incontinence

What Are the Types of Urinary Incontinence And Their Symptoms?

Types of urinary incontinence

There are mainly two types of urinary incontinence. Stress and urge urinary incontinence. Some women, especially older women, have both.

Stress urinary incontinence occurs when you sneeze, cough, laugh, jog, or do activities that put pressure on your bladder. It is the most common type of urinary incontinence of bladder control problems in women.

The female urinary incontinence emergency occurs when you have a great urge to urinate but cannot reach the bathroom in time. This can happen even when the bladder has only a small amount of urine. Some women may not have any warning before accidental leakage of urine occurs. Other women may leak urine when they drink water or when they hear or touch running water. An overactive bladder is a type of urinary incontinence, but not everyone with an overactive bladder loses urine.

What are the symptoms of different types of urinary incontinence?

Symptoms of stress urinary incontinence:

  • Involuntary release of urine, especially when coughing, sneezing or laughing
  • Leakage of small to moderate amount of urine

Symptoms of urge urinary incontinence:

  • Frequent and sudden uncontrollable need to urinate
  • You may have a moderate to a large amount of urine, although a small amount is possible

It is common for a person to have symptoms of both types of incontinence. This is called mixed incontinence.

What causes the different types of urinary incontinence?

Stress incontinence can be caused by childbirth, weight gain, or other conditions that stretch the muscles of the pelvic floor. When these muscles cannot hold the bladder properly, the bladder falls off and pushes against the vagina. You cannot tighten the muscles that close over the urethra. Therefore, urine can leak due to the extra pressure on the bladder when you cough, sneeze, laugh, exercise, or do other activities.

Urgent incontinence is caused by an overactive bladder muscle that pushes urine out of the bladder. It can be caused by bladder irritation, emotional stress, or brain conditions such as Parkinson’s disease or a stroke. Urologist in Noida often doesn’t know what causes it.

How are the types of urinary incontinence diagnosed?

To diagnose the cause of urinary incontinence, urologist in Ghaziabad asks people about their medical history and perform a physical exam. It may be easier for you to answer questions if you keep avoiding the dairy for 3-4 days before seeing your urologist in Greater Noida.

To check for stress incontinence, your urologist in Vaishali may ask you to cough while standing.

Sometimes urologist in Delhi request these tests:

  • Bladder stress test and Bonney test.
  • Pad test, which can help show how much urine is leaking. They give you an absorbent pad that has been heavy. You use the pad until urine leaks, and then return the pad to weigh yourself again. The increased weight of the pad provides an estimate of the amount of urine that leaked.
  • Urinalysis and urine culture.
  • Urodynamic tests. The urodynamic test is expensive. It is usually only done if you are considering surgery or if treatment has not worked for you and you need to know more about the cause. It provides a more advanced way to check the bladder function.
  • Cystometry, a series of tests to measure bladder pressure at different levels of fullness.
  • Post-emptying residual measures, which measure the amount of urine that remains in the bladder after urinating.
  • X-ray or ultrasound. These are used to examine changes in the position of the bladder and urethra during urination, cough, or straining.

If the cause of the incontinence is not identified by the above tests, more thorough examinations may be required.

prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer – The Most Common Form of Cancer Among Men

The prostate along with the seminal vesicles are accessory seminal glands that produce seminal plasma from which sperm is formed. The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.

Its size changes with age, in younger men being the size of a nut and weighing 15-20g, but maybe much larger in older men.

Prostate cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland.

Types

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (95%), developing from the cells of the gland.

Other types of prostate cancer include sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, transient cell carcinomas; these types being rare.

Some types of prostate cancer can grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly.

In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some young people) who died from other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them in their lifetime.

Precancerous disorders of the prostate

Some urologist in Noida suggests that prostate cancer starts as a precancerous condition, although this is not yet known. These conditions are sometimes discovered during a biopsy.

1. Intraepithelial prostatic neoplasia: there are changes in the way the prostate cells look under the microscope; based on the abnormal appearance of the cell types, they are classified as:

A. Low-grade: patterns of prostate cells that appear almost normal;
B. High-grade: abnormal cell models.

2. Proliferative inflammatory atrophy: the cells look smaller than normal, coexisting with signs of inflammation in the area.

Symptoms

Clinical:

  • Anamnesis: dysuria, pollakiuria, pelvic pain.
  • Clinical examination – local: assessment of the volume of the prostate by rectal cough; general examination.

Laboratory findings:

  • Endorectal prostatic ultrasound; urography iv; Blood PSA (men without prostatic neoplasm have PSA <4ng / ml); prostate biopsy; CT; MRI; lymph node biopsy; the degree of prostate cancer.

The degree of cancer is based on how abnormal the cells look under the microscope. The Gleason score assigns degrees based on how much the tumor resembles normal prostate tissue.

If the tumor closely resembles normal prostate tissue, it is assigned grade 1. If the tumor has abnormal cells it has a grade 5. Grades 2 and 4 have characteristics between these two extremes.

Because prostate cancers often have areas of varying degrees, one degree is attributed to the two areas that make up most of cancer.

These two classes are added to get the Gleason score (also called the Gleason amount). Theoretically, the Gleason score can be between 2 and 10, but scores below 6 are rarely used.

Prostate cancer is often divided into 3 groups, based on the Gleason score:

  • Cancer with Gleason score 6 or lower is called well-differentiated;
  • Cancer with a Gleason score of 7 is called moderately differentiated;
  • Cancer with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 is called poorly differentiated.

Risk factors

  • Age: Prostate cancer is rarely found in men under the age of 40, the risk of developing it increases rapidly after age 50.
  • Ethnicity: Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in African-American men and less frequently in Asian-American and Hispanic / Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites. The reasons for these ethnic-racial differences are unclear.
  • Family history: having a father or brother with prostate cancer, the risk of having this disease is greater than double.
  • Genetic changes: Inherited mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes increase the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. Mutations in these genes (especially BRCA2) may also increase the risk of prostatic neoplasm in some men.

Staging

A staging system is a standard way for the cancer care team to describe how far cancer has spread.

The most commonly used prostate cancer staging system is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (TNMS) system, which was most recently updated in January 2018.

The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 key elements:

  • The size of the main tumor (category T);
  • If it has spread in the nearby lymph nodes (category N);
  • If it has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body (category M);
  • PSA level at the time of diagnosis;
  • The grade group (based on the Gleason score), which represents a measure of the probability of rapid growth and spread of cancer. This is determined by the results of a prostate biopsy (or surgery).

Treatment

It is important to discuss all options of prostate cancer treatment in Delhi, including goals and possible side effects. Depending on the age, the stage of cancer and its degree, comorbidities, there are the following treatment options: surgical treatment, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy.

Surveillance

After radiotherapy and/or radical surgery: general clinical examination: urinary signs, rectal cough; PSA; bone scintigraphy;

Rhythm: At 2-6 months, in the first 3 years;

After hormone therapy: clinical supervision: general condition, urinary signs, rectal cough; biological monitoring: PSA, testosterone, alkaline phosphatase; radiological and/or scintigraphic tracking.