Tag Archives: prostate cancer

urologist in Noida

Does masturbating every day prevent prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is, rightly, a health problem that scares men enough. The second most common type of tumour in males over 50 years of age. In addition, it is the second leading cause of tumour death among men worldwide, despite the fact that the problem has more than a 90% chance of cure if diagnosed early.

Exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy diet, not drinking, not smoking and consulting with a urologist in Noida periodically after the age of 40 are the main ways to protect yourself from prostate cancer. However, science is studying other ways to prevent the disease. And one of them can be something very simple and literally be in your hand.

Does masturbation prevent cancer?

Although it is not yet possible to state this categorically, it is very likely that the relationship exists. Research carried out at different universities has shown a correlation between the number of ejaculations and the reduction in the risk of prostate cancer.

Scientists have found that the incidence of the disease is lower in young people (20 to 30 years) who enjoy five to seven times a week and also in older men (in their 50s) who ejaculate once a week. However, this was only a correlation and it is not possible to guarantee 100% the benefit since factors such as food, physical activity and better medical care were not isolated in the studies and may have influenced the result.

Why can ejaculating protect your prostate?

One explanation is that when you ejaculate you eliminate toxins present in the semen. This decreases the amount of substances in the body that cause irritation and can lead to the appearance of tumours. It is not yet possible to determine whether there is a difference in the level of protection when ejaculation is the result of masturbation or sexual intercourse.

prostate cancer treatment in Noida

Prostate Cancer – The Most Common Form of Cancer Among Men

The prostate along with the seminal vesicles are accessory seminal glands that produce seminal plasma from which sperm is formed. The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.

Its size changes with age, in younger men being the size of a nut and weighing 15-20g, but maybe much larger in older men.

Prostate cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland.


Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (95%), developing from the cells of the gland.

Other types of prostate cancer include sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, transient cell carcinomas; these types being rare.

Some types of prostate cancer can grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly.

In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some young people) who died from other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them in their lifetime.

Precancerous disorders of the prostate

Some urologist in Noida suggests that prostate cancer starts as a precancerous condition, although this is not yet known. These conditions are sometimes discovered during a biopsy.

1. Intraepithelial prostatic neoplasia: there are changes in the way the prostate cells look under the microscope; based on the abnormal appearance of the cell types, they are classified as:

A. Low-grade: patterns of prostate cells that appear almost normal;
B. High-grade: abnormal cell models.

2. Proliferative inflammatory atrophy: the cells look smaller than normal, coexisting with signs of inflammation in the area.



  • Anamnesis: dysuria, pollakiuria, pelvic pain.
  • Clinical examination – local: assessment of the volume of the prostate by rectal cough; general examination.

Laboratory findings:

  • Endorectal prostatic ultrasound; urography iv; Blood PSA (men without prostatic neoplasm have PSA <4ng / ml); prostate biopsy; CT; MRI; lymph node biopsy; the degree of prostate cancer.

The degree of cancer is based on how abnormal the cells look under the microscope. The Gleason score assigns degrees based on how much the tumor resembles normal prostate tissue.

If the tumor closely resembles normal prostate tissue, it is assigned grade 1. If the tumor has abnormal cells it has a grade 5. Grades 2 and 4 have characteristics between these two extremes.

Because prostate cancers often have areas of varying degrees, one degree is attributed to the two areas that make up most of cancer.

These two classes are added to get the Gleason score (also called the Gleason amount). Theoretically, the Gleason score can be between 2 and 10, but scores below 6 are rarely used.

Prostate cancer is often divided into 3 groups, based on the Gleason score:

  • Cancer with Gleason score 6 or lower is called well-differentiated;
  • Cancer with a Gleason score of 7 is called moderately differentiated;
  • Cancer with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 is called poorly differentiated.

Risk factors

  • Age: Prostate cancer is rarely found in men under the age of 40, the risk of developing it increases rapidly after age 50.
  • Ethnicity: Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in African-American men and less frequently in Asian-American and Hispanic / Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites. The reasons for these ethnic-racial differences are unclear.
  • Family history: having a father or brother with prostate cancer, the risk of having this disease is greater than double.
  • Genetic changes: Inherited mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes increase the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. Mutations in these genes (especially BRCA2) may also increase the risk of prostatic neoplasm in some men.


A staging system is a standard way for the cancer care team to describe how far cancer has spread.

The most commonly used prostate cancer staging system is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (TNMS) system, which was most recently updated in January 2018.

The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 key elements:

  • The size of the main tumor (category T);
  • If it has spread in the nearby lymph nodes (category N);
  • If it has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body (category M);
  • PSA level at the time of diagnosis;
  • The grade group (based on the Gleason score), which represents a measure of the probability of rapid growth and spread of cancer. This is determined by the results of a prostate biopsy (or surgery).


It is important to discuss all options of prostate cancer treatment in Delhi, including goals and possible side effects. Depending on the age, the stage of cancer and its degree, comorbidities, there are the following treatment options: surgical treatment, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy.


After radiotherapy and/or radical surgery: general clinical examination: urinary signs, rectal cough; PSA; bone scintigraphy;

Rhythm: At 2-6 months, in the first 3 years;

After hormone therapy: clinical supervision: general condition, urinary signs, rectal cough; biological monitoring: PSA, testosterone, alkaline phosphatase; radiological and/or scintigraphic tracking.


Prostate Cancer

About Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland is a small walnut-sized gland situated below the urinary bladder and produces part of semen. In older age groups, enlargement of the prostate gland is the commonest urological problem. This enlargement can be benign (BPH – benign enlargement of the prostate) or malignant (prostatic carcinoma or prostate cancer).

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males. Although prostate cancer can be slow-growing cancer, it is a leading cause of death. Most of the cases in India present in advance stages leading to high death rates. The last two decades, in particular, have witnessed an upsurge in its incidence attributed to changing lifestyles and increased proportion of elderly populations.

Old age, repeated prostatic infections, obesity and smoking habits heighten the risk of cancer prostate. Races like African-Americans are at the highest risk than whites. Positive family history also increases risk.

Clinical presentation

Most patients with early prostate cancer are asymptomatic. The presence of symptoms suggests the advance stage. The patient may have urinary symptoms like poor flow, urinary frequency, blood in urine, urinary leakage, unable to hold urine, waking up multiple times in the night for urination and feeling of incomplete urination after voiding. If the disease has spread to bones, it may cause bone pain. The involvement of the spine may lead to weakness of lower limbs and paralysis.



Digital rectal examination by urologist involves a feeling of the prostate gland through the anal opening. Any hardness in the prostate gives suspicion of cancer.

Raised value of a simple blood test of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) can also suspect prostate cancer. It is advisable for all healthy males to go for the PSA test after 40 years of age and repeat the test at a frequency depending on its result.

Multiparametric MRI of the prostate

If DRE or PSA suspects cancer prostate, Multiparametric MRI provides non-invasive localization of cancer. This uses multiple parameters like hypoechogenicity, contrast enhancement, ADC value, spectroscopy, and cystine – choline ratio to decide the nature of the lesion. This new modality is highly accurate in suspecting cancer and differentiating it from infection but still not confirmatory.

Prostate Biopsy

If DRE, PSA or MRI suspects cancer prostate, the biopsy is required to prove it. This involves taking of prostatic tissue by a needle placed through the anal opening guided by the ultrasound probe. The tissue taken in a biopsy is examined by a pathologist to confirm prostate cancer.

Staging and risk assessment

MRI and Bone scan (if very high PSA) are done accordingly to decide the stage of cancer. The Stage of cancer means the level of spread of the tumor in the body. Cancer may be confined inside the prostate gland within its capsule (Localised disease), may spread locally outside capsule (Locally advanced disease) or may spread to bones, lymph nodes, liver, lungs or brain (Metastatic/advanced disease). Further treatment depends upon the stage and grade of cancer.


Early Disease

Options for patients with early/localized disease are watchful waiting, surgery, and radiotherapy. Watchful waiting is an option for patients with low-grade disease (Gleason score or less and low PSA) or very old patients with other diseases or poor life expectancy. However, they will need definitive prostate cancer treatment in Delhi in case of progression of the disease.

Surgery in the form of Radical Prostatectomy is an option for patients with good life expectancy (more than 10 years) and age less than 75 years with localized disease. It involves the removal of the entire prostate gland through the abdomen and it cures cancer. A person will have a normal life span after surgery. It can be performed by open method, Laparoscopic method or with Robotic assistance. It has the side effect of temporary urinary leakage.

Radiotherapy is indicated in patients with localized or locally advanced disease who are elderly, unfit or unwilling for surgery. This also completely cures cancer and gives normal life span to the patient. With the advances in machines and technology, the side effects of radiotherapy due to the burning of adjoining tissues have reduced significantly. Its side effects include burning, frequency and blood in urination, diarrhea, and blood in the stool.

Advanced / Metastatic Disease

Hormonal manipulations– Prostate cancer cell’s growth depends upon the availability of Testosterone hormone which is produced in the testis. If both testes are removed surgically or blocked medically by hormonal blocking injections and tablets, cancer stops to grow and regresses. Even in case of advance prostatic cancer, this manipulation gives years of trouble-free life. Its side effects include loss of vigor and bony weakness. Calcium supplementation and bisphosphonates are given to prevent and control these side effects.

However, after some years of hormonal manipulations, some smart cancer cells learn to grow on other feeds rather than Testosterone hormone or produce their own hormone and leads to CRPC (Castration-Resistant Prostate cancer)condition. Here comes the role of chemotherapy i.e. drugs that are given via intravenous routes to kill these cancer cells. These are toxic but in this way, some months are available to the patient. Vaccination therapy can also provide some months to the life of the patients of CRPC.

Supportive / palliative treatment– The patients of advance cancer with urinary retention can be relieved by endoscopic scrapping of the prostate (TUR Channelling). Obstruction of the ureter and renal failure by cancer can be treated by ureteral stenting or tube drainage of kidneys (PCN). Bony pain due to metastasis can be controlled by calcium supplementation, Bisphosphonates, and localized radiotherapy.


Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting aging males. It is slow-growing but due to late presentation, it leads to debility, suffering, and death. It can be diagnosed at an early stage by easily available tests. If treated in the early stage it gives 100% life expectancy. Even in the advanced stage, effective options for prostate cancer treatment in Noida are available to give the patients “useful years” of life.

Dr. Shailendra Kumar Goel

M.S., M.Ch., D.N.B., M.B.A., M.N.A.M.S.

Principal Consultant Urologist, Andrologist & Kidney Transplant Surgeon in Delhi

Max Super Speciality Hospital, Vaishali & Noida


Know more about prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer is a form of cancer that affects aging men commonly. The prostate gland is responsible for producing seminal fluid or semen, from its position under the bladder, surrounding the urethra. Its function is under control of testosterone hormone produced by testicles.

Prostate cancer refers to the growth of a malignant mass of cells which can also be called a tumour. More about this cancer:

  • Risk Factors: The various risk factors are studied for the development of this cancer. Advancing age, a family history of the same disease, obesity, western diet and black race are the risk factor for the development of this cancer.
  • Types: There are basically two types of prostate cancer, including fast-growing or aggressive, and slow-growing or non-aggressive. Yet, it is also important to remember that not every abnormal growth in this gland can be termed as a tumour, or is a sign of prostate cancer. A malignant growth signifies prostate cancer. This tumour can grow at a fast pace for aggressive prostate cancer, while it can grow and spread slowly for the non-aggressive type.
  • Symptoms: It is possible not to have any kind of obvious symptoms when suffering from this kind of cancer at an early stage. The symptoms usually begin to show up when cancer has reached a more advanced stage. These include urinary problems, like poor flow, frequency, frequent need to wake up for urination in night. The patient may go through pain and difficulty when it comes to urinating. This pain may also occur during ejaculation. The patient may also find blood discharge in the semen upon ejaculation. Pain in the backbone and pelvic are also common symptoms of prostate cancer when it spread into bones. Spine involvement may gradually turn into numbness in lower limbs with paralysis. Blocked of ureters may lead to kidney failure.
  • Diagnosis: The diagnosis of prostate cancer is suspected by digital rectal examination and PSA blood test. If any nodule or hard area is suspected on digital rectal examination or PSA is high, then a prostate biopsy is done to confirm cancer. When in doubt, Multiparametric MRI of the prostate may guide the necessity of biopsy.
  • Treatment: Early cancer limited to the prostate can be cured by surgery (Radical Prostatectomy) or Radiotherapy. Advancement in surgical techniques due to robotics and laparoscopy, has made Robotic radical prostatectomy as the first choice of prostate cancer treatment in Delhi for 1st stage. Advance cancer is treated by hormonal manipulation of testosterone blockade. It can be achieved medically by various injections or surgically by removing both testes. If cancer still grows despite hormonal manipulations, chemotherapy helps in rescue.
  • Prostate cancer is a treatable disease. We should not fear it rather fight with it. Ultimately, we can win over cancer.