Tag Archives: urologist in Noida

urologist in Noida

Know the most common urological diseases in women

Many people still believe that the urologist is a doctor who only takes care of men’s health, but this is a mistake. Various diseases, many of them common to women, such as urinary tract infection, for example, can and should be treated by this specialist. He is responsible for ensuring the health and proper functioning of the urinary tract of adults, men, women, children or the elderly.

Any problem involving the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra can be treated by the urologist in Ghaziabad. Urinary loss, pain or discomfort when urinating, presence of blood in the urine or pain in the kidneys are warning signs that it is time for the woman to seek help from this specialist. This visit is important so that the urologist in Noida can make a careful assessment of what may be happening and early to detect potentially more serious problems, such as bladder or kidney cancer.

The most common urological diseases in women that can be treated by the best urologist in Noida are:

Urinary infections: caused by bacteria, the main symptoms are burning to urinate, urge to urinate several times during the day, urinary bleeding, urine with strong odor and color and pelvic pain;

Urinary incontinence: it is the involuntary loss of urine. This usually occurs when a person sneezes, coughs, or makes some physical effort. But it can also be associated with a very strong urge to urinate that makes the person unable to “hold” the urine until they reach the bathroom;

Bladder cancer: it is one of the most common types of cancer of the urinary tract and the 19th most frequent among women, according to the National Cancer Institute (Inca). Blood in the urine, painful urination and frequent urge to go to the bathroom are the most common symptoms of the disease. In this case, monitoring with a urologist is essential;

Kidney cancer: the kidneys are organs located at the back of the abdomen, close to the spine, whose main function is to “filter” the blood and clean it from “impurities”. In general, localized and small tumors rarely cause symptoms and most of them are diagnosed through an image exam (ultrasound or computed tomography), requested for another reason. The main symptoms of the disease are: bleeding in the urine (hematuria), low back or abdominal pain and the presence of a palpable mass in the abdomen.

phimosis

Phimosis: When is Surgery Necessary?

Do you know that excess skin that stays on the penis, making it difficult to expose the glans (head of the genital organ)? So, that’s phimosis. This condition is usually inherent in baby boys. However, in adolescence and, especially, in adulthood, it becomes a problem. Therefore, surgical intervention ends up being the solution for those who need to remove excess foreskin. In addition to discomfort, sexual performance problems, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), phimosis is also responsible for the emergence of many other illnesses – among which is penis cancer.

The lack of hygiene is one of the conditions that favor the appearance of the neoplasia. However, many times, adolescents or men who go through this situation are unable to perform the cleaning properly. In other words, the picture is not always related to the lack of cleanliness. It can also be related to the limitation imposed by excess skin in the region. So, in order to remove obstacles and clarify doubts, urologist in Noida gives some reasons why the surgery is necessary. 

Is there a way to prevent phimosis?

Unfortunately, this is not a case of prevention. The formation of this skin, which covers the head of the penis, occurs in the fetal phase. In other words, boys are already born with it.

What are the most suitable treatments?

In the first moment, urologist in Ghaziabad usually indicates corticosteroid ointments, because they have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. Therefore, they facilitate the sliding of the skin over the glans. In a second step, the recommended treatment is the exercise of retracting the skin of the foreskin, which allows the skin to loosen gradually, without causing much pain. Generally, the practice is indicated for boys over 5 years old.

When is surgical intervention necessary?

Postectomy or circumcision, as this type of intervention is also called, is indicated when previous treatments have not produced satisfactory results. In general, the surgery to remove excess skin is simple, lasts about 30 minutes, and the procedure is done with local anesthesia. It can be general, depending on the context in which urologist in Greater Noida and patient find themselves. Although the recovery is a little painful, the patient is discharged the same day.

What are the advantages of phimosis surgery?

The first benefit, and perhaps one of the most important, is the possibility of complete hygiene of the genital organ, without hindrance, because it is no longer necessary to pull the skin. Another benefit of it, certainly, is the reduction of infections by sexual contact. But, of course, this does not dispense with the use of condoms. It is also worth mentioning that this operation must be done before adolescence, precisely to minimize trauma. As we have seen, phimosis brings numerous obstacles to the lives of adolescents and men. Therefore, surgery should not be postponed. In addition to the delay enhancing the problems, it also ends up compromising the psychological side of those who go through it. 

Want to know more? I am available to answer any questions you may have and I will be very happy to respond to your comments on this matter.

kidney stone

4 Treatments For Kidney Stones

The combination of certain substances in the urinary channels or inside the kidneys favours the formation of kidney stones. Generally, diets high in salt and industrialized foods, combined with low hydration and family history, are relevant factors in this context. Precisely because they contribute to the composition of this solid mass. According to the best urologist in Noida, 10% of the population goes through this trauma. In addition, the kidney stone, as the kidney stone is popularly known, affects many more men than women – most occurring between 20 and 40 years old.

Kidney stone symptoms

It is worth mentioning that the pain caused by kidney stones is described as uncontrollable. In general, people squirm, some even throw themselves on the floor, given the stress caused. However, in addition to indescribable pain, other symptoms can manifest, such as fever, vomiting, blood and pain when urinating, are commonly associated with this type of acute manifestation. So, in order to relieve these spasms and improve your health, I have listed some effective kidney stone treatments, want to see? Read on!

1. Drink more water

Water is essential in body hydration, as it helps in the transport of nutrients and contributes to the elimination of certain waste from the body. For example, when the stone is very small, it is naturally expelled by the simple act of drinking water.

2. Avoid drinking water

“What do you mean?”, You must be asking yourself. So, that’s exactly it. In times of crisis, it is essential to avoid drinking fluids. As a preventive measure, and also as a form of treatment, water is excellent. However, during renal colic, it complicates the patient’s life. Typically, cramps occur the moment the stones block the urinary tract. Many people believe that drinking water during a crisis helps the kidney to force the stone down. However, the measure is disastrous, because, at the time of the obstruction, the kidney filters the liquid, but there is no way to eliminate it. So there is swelling and a lot of pain.

3. Eat a balanced diet

As I reported, processed foods and drinks harm the lives of those who suffer from kidney stones. So avoid them, because they concentrate a significant amount of chemicals and sodium in the body. Salt favours the formation of kidney stones, so restricting or reducing it in meals will bring benefits, especially for those who suffer from hypertension. Another caution you need to take is calcium intake – it cannot be too little or too much. If you don’t know, in the intestine there is a significant concentration of a compound called oxalate. When it cannot find calcium, that compound simply leaves for the urinary system and sticks to the calcium there. Hence, the development of the dreaded stone begins. So, the correct intake of this element is essential for kidney health.

4. Get medical help

The size of the kidney stone is an important factor because it directs treatment. Generally, stones above 4 millimetres are expelled with the help of painkillers. In the case of those with more than 10 millimetres, surgical intervention is recommended. In the treatment of kidney stones, some precautions are essential to ensure kidney health and relief. Therefore, medical monitoring is also necessary, because, with the help of urologist in Ghaziabad, the patient is able to live well and better. Want to know more? I am available to answer any questions you may have and I will be very happy to answer your comments on this matter. 

Balanitis

Balanitis: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

Balanitis is a type of inflammation that affects the mucosa that lines the glans, better known as the head of the penis. It can be accompanied – or not – by infection and usually affects men with phimosis, although it is not a rule.

When inflammation affects the glans and foreskin simultaneously, the condition is called balanoposthitis. Although balanitis is extremely unpleasant, the good news is that there is a treatment for the problem.

Want to know the symptoms, causes and ways to treat this inflammatory disease? Read the article and learn more.

Main symptoms of balanitis

Balanitis is an inflammatory condition that generates several physical manifestations, including local pain, irritation, heat in the region, itching and peeling of the mucosa. Purulent discharge and odour under the foreskin are also common.

Usually, the head of the penis is red, ulcers may appear on the surface and swelling that causes the narrowing of the urinary canal. Another frequent sign is the swelling of the ganglia located in the groin.

Causes

Balanitis may be related to the narrowing of the foreskin, which makes it difficult to clean the glans properly and ends up favouring the appearance of local and urinary infections due to poor intimate hygiene. The main cause of inflammation in the head of the penis is precisely the inadequate hygiene of the region.

The absence of proper cleanliness contributes to the formation of smegma, a clear secretion consisting of the flaking of fats and dead cells produced by the penile glands and infected by bacteria, fungi and viruses that accumulate below the foreskin, giving rise to inflammation.

Eventually, contact with irritating substances present in creams, soaps, ointments, spermicides, oils and medications can also influence the appearance of balanitis.

Some risk factors are able to increase the propensity to balanitis, among them, it is possible to mention obesity, low immunity, use of antibiotics and type 2 diabetes, due to the high concentration of sugar in the urine. Candidiasis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, herpes and gonorrhoea are also considered risk factors.

Treatments for the condition

When talking about balanitis treatment, it is important to highlight that the therapeutic approach chosen must address the cause of the disease. Phimosis surgery, for example, is the best indication when narrowing the foreskin makes it impossible to expose the glans and interferes with full site hygiene.

If the condition, in addition to being inflammatory, is infectious, the urologist in Noida should advise the patient on the use of drugs (antifungals, antibiotics and antimycotics) to fight the infection. Self-medication is contraindicated in all cases. Remember that only the best urologist in Noida can recommend the type, dosage and duration of the medication.

If balanitis has been caused by irritating substances, the use of such substances should be discontinued. Antiallergics should be used when necessary. It should be noted that good hygiene, in addition to helping in prevention, contribute to treatment.

Want to know more about balanitis? I am available to answer any questions you may have and I will be very happy to answer your comments on this matter.

urologist in Noida

Does masturbating every day prevent prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is, rightly, a health problem that scares men enough. The second most common type of tumour in males over 50 years of age. In addition, it is the second leading cause of tumour death among men worldwide, despite the fact that the problem has more than a 90% chance of cure if diagnosed early.

Exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy diet, not drinking, not smoking and consulting with a urologist in Noida periodically after the age of 40 are the main ways to protect yourself from prostate cancer. However, science is studying other ways to prevent the disease. And one of them can be something very simple and literally be in your hand.

Does masturbation prevent cancer?

Although it is not yet possible to state this categorically, it is very likely that the relationship exists. Research carried out at different universities has shown a correlation between the number of ejaculations and the reduction in the risk of prostate cancer.

Scientists have found that the incidence of the disease is lower in young people (20 to 30 years) who enjoy five to seven times a week and also in older men (in their 50s) who ejaculate once a week. However, this was only a correlation and it is not possible to guarantee 100% the benefit since factors such as food, physical activity and better medical care were not isolated in the studies and may have influenced the result.

Why can ejaculating protect your prostate?

One explanation is that when you ejaculate you eliminate toxins present in the semen. This decreases the amount of substances in the body that cause irritation and can lead to the appearance of tumours. It is not yet possible to determine whether there is a difference in the level of protection when ejaculation is the result of masturbation or sexual intercourse.

best urologist in Noida

Swelling of the testicle – after impact and for some other reason

Testicular swelling can be the result of an impact or other mechanical injury, but it can also be caused by one of the male diseases, e.g., inflammation of the testis, hydrocele, testicular torsion, and even testicular cancer. Swelling of the testis or both testicles can also be a symptom of wearing too tight underwear or having a very active sex life. Treatment depends on the factor that causes testicular edema.

What is testicular edema?

The testicles are the even sex organ of a man. They are in the scrotum. The most important task of the testicles is the production of spermatozoa to fertilize the egg. They are a very sensitive organ that can easily be damaged or mechanically injured. Sometimes there are various ailments coming from the testis or both testes. Swollen testicles are one of them.

Swelling of the testicles or one testicle may occur in a child, adolescent, young or mature man. It looks like one or both testicles are clearly enlarged. This image can additionally be accompanied by, for example, testicular pain (or both), redness of the skin in this area, a feeling of pulling or heaviness.

Testicular swelling can be due to a variety of reasons. It can be caused by various diseases, including mumps, testicular cancer, testicular hydrocele, or orchitis. This condition can also be caused by trauma, testicular damage, staying at very high temperatures for a long time, or prolonged and intense sexual intercourse.

How is testicular edema manifested?

Due to the fact that the testicles are very well vascularized and supplied with blood, all changes that occur within them can be quickly noticed and felt in the hands by self-testing the testicles. Of course, not all deviations from the norm will be possible to register from the moment they appear in the organ, but systematic testicular analysis combined with self-examination definitely helps to quickly detect alarming symptoms and diagnose possible diseases of this reproductive organ in a man.

Swelling of the testicle or both caused by inflammation of this organ (s), apart from swelling of the testicles, is also characterized by high pain in the perineum and warming of the scrotum. The swelling and hardness of one testicle not combined with its pain may be symptoms of testicular hydrocele. In turn, the torsion of the spermatic cord can be determined by the growing edema of this organ along with very severe pain, redness, and sometimes also nausea and vomiting. On the other hand, if swelling and testicular pain cease after going to a prone position, this may suggest an inguinal hernia. Symptoms of testicular cancer, in addition to asymmetrical edema, are also nodules or a lump and usually no pain.

Causes of swollen testicles

As already mentioned, swelling of the testicle can be caused by various diseases, which are generally referred to as male.

Swelling of the testicle in a child is very often associated with testicular hydrocele (this is the accumulation of fluid under the skin, between the visceral membrane and the wall membrane) or mumps, in the complication of which may swell this organ together with e.g. severe testicular pain radiating even to the stomach and fever. Both hydrocele and mumps complications can also occur in an adult male.

Pain and swelling of the testicle can result, for example, from inflammation of the testicles or epididymis. The inflammation of the male reproductive organs arises as a result of the action of pathogenic microorganisms, a bacterial infection of the urinary system, or the attack of microorganisms that contribute to infection with gonorrhoea, chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases.

What else can cause swollen testicles? The causes of this condition are also testicular torsion, testicular cancer, chronic prostatitis, varicocele, inguinal hernia, or filariosis.

Swollen testicles after surgery

Scrotal edema after a hernia operation is a natural reaction of the body after the procedure. Swelling of the inguinal canal tissues is a symptom resulting from the loss of the possibility of an outflow of blood from the testicle. However, it is enough to apply compresses from the anti-swelling preparation and to lift the scrotum bag to stave off the problem.

Likewise, it may also appear swollen hydrocele after surgery, or after surgery for varicose veins or after a vasectomy. If the symptom does not go away on its own or after symptomatic treatment, seek medical attention.

Injury, pressure on the testicle (caused by wearing too tight underwear), impact on the testicles (e.g. as a result of an accident or kick) can also be causes of edema. Swelling of the testicle after impact can even lead to temporary or complete infertility.

In addition, a large number of sex acts in a short period of time can also cause swelling of the scrotum.

Treatment of swollen testicles

What to do if testicular edema occurs? Treatment is the cause of this organ’s edema. Swelling of the testicles alone is not treated because it is not a symptom that occurs in isolation from the causes of this condition. Hence, the therapeutic method depends on the factor that causes testicular swelling.

In the case of testicular edema, caused by hydrocele of the testis, the therapeutic method chosen most often is urological surgery. Similar procedures are usually used for torsion of the spermatic cord.

Medication, including antibiotic therapy, is the most common treatment for orchitis or epididymitis. Antiparasitic treatment is the choice for filariasis, in difficult cases, surgery is performed.

If testicular swelling is caused by testicular cancer, the treatment depends on the stage of the disease, possible metastases of cancer to further organs and the type of histopathological cancer.

The method of treatment should be decided by the best urologist in Noida caring for the patient. He also makes a diagnosis, which is the basis for choosing the therapeutic method.

Urinary Incontinence And Perineal Rupture

Urinary Incontinence And Perineal Rupture

Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence is a fairly common condition among women, but they rarely talk about it on their own initiative, considering it embarrassing, shameful.
Urinary incontinence affects women 5 times more often than men. About 10-25% of women between 25-65 years old suffer from a form of urinary incontinence, the percentage increasing to 40% in women over 65 years old.

Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of urine through normal anatomical pathways, due to the bladder and/or sphincter disorders. Loss of urine may occur with exertion (coughing, sneezing) or may be accompanied by other symptoms, such as pollakiuria (frequent urination), nocturia (urination during the night), urinary urgency (urgent need to urinate).

Loss of urine is a symptom that occurs in many diseases: congenital genitourinary malformations, neurological diseases or most commonly (80% of cases), due to insufficient musculoskeletal support – suspension and uterovesis.

The diagnosis of the type of incontinence is made by the urologist in Noida, after the clinical examination and after performing specific urodynamic tests.

Rupture of the perineum

Perineal rupture is a generic, medical term that defines the relaxation of the musculoskeletal system of the perineum and is not mandatory to occur only in women who have given birth vaginally. It can also occur in women who have not given birth or at a long interval from birth to menopause.

Rupture of the perineum may not affect the patient in any way, as well as may cause sexual discomfort, sometimes to the point of frigidity or indifference of the partner; urinary incontinence at lower and lower efforts (sometimes just walking) or lowering of the pelvic organs (uterus, bladder, rectum) through the vulvar cleft, outside, is called prolapse.

The treatment of this condition can only be surgical, the operation being performed most frequently through the vagina, rarely requiring an abdominal approach. Perineal surgery can also be aesthetic: just as many women want more beautiful noses, lips or breasts, some want a more toned perineum, a tighter vaginal lumen, greater sexual satisfaction, sexual comfort as at 20 years old.

Treatment

Both perineal rupture and urinary incontinence are accentuated with age, the symptoms becoming noisier, more annoying. Therefore, it is necessary that the two diseases be diagnosed in time and thus be able to be treated properly, the therapeutic sanction being depending on the indication of the best urologist in Noida: medicinal, surgical or associated.

Cystitis treatment

How to Combat Cystitis?

Have you ever had a promising plan broken because of an uncomfortable or painful sensation in your genital area? Has it happened to you to continually want to pee and feel discomfort when urinating? Don’t worry, it’s more frequent than you might think. Cystitis is a problem that affects a high percentage of the population but has a solution if we team up with an expert urologist in Noida to combat it.

What is cystitis and how does it occur?

Cystitis is an acute inflammation of the urinary bladder due to an infection by the invasion of microorganisms. Normally responsible is the e.coli bacteria, which lives in the guts of humans and is usually harmless in most cases, except for some more dangerous strains. It is usual that the body itself discards these bacteria with urine, so it is essential to drink plenty of water (between 1 litre and a half and 2 litres per day, according to the constitution and food of each person). However, sometimes these bacteria attach to the urethral walls or bladder and multiply so quickly that they cannot all be expelled with urine. That’s when inflammation occurs that leads to cystitis.

cystitis

What are the symptoms?

The most common are discomfort and pain when urinating, burning sensation or burning in urination, urgent and/or frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine colour and strong urine odour. Other symptoms include pain in the side area, pain or discomfort when having sex and feeling fatigued. However, symptoms may vary by patient.

Are there different types of cystitis?

You can talk about bacterial or infectious cystitis, which is caused by bacterial infection, and non-infectious cystitis, which has no specific cause and is common in women of childbearing age. The latter may arise from the use of feminine hygiene sprays, spermicides or as a result of adverse reactions to certain medicinal products. It may also result from prolonged use of a catheter or complications from other existing pathologies. It is advisable to go to the best urologist in Noida to determine the origin of cystitis and the most appropriate treatment for each case.

On the other hand, sporadic cystitis can be differentiated (there is only one episode on time) or repeat cystitis (there are more than 3 episodes in a 12-month period). According to a research, 37% of women suffer at least one episode of cystitis in their lifetime and 12% suffer from them on a recurring basis.

Is it common?

It is a very common pathology, especially in women. According to the best urologist in Ghaziabad, cystitis especially affects women between the ages of 18 and 39 “coinciding with the age of maximum sexual activity in women”. He also notes that about 50-60% of women in the premenopausal phase suffer from a urinary tract infection and that, of that scale, 90% is cystitis.

However, men also experience episodes of cystitis, sometimes due to an enlarged prostate that, by slowing down urine flow, increases the risk of infection.

Cystitis is common in people who have frequent medical exams with tubes or catheters or those who need tubes. The incidence of this pathology is higher in older patients, as they progressively decrease the faculties of the nervous system to control the bladder. Similarly, in the event of a mismatch of the immune system, there is an increased risk of an episode of cystitis.

People with diabetes, hypercalcemia, or immunosuppression are considered more likely to develop episodes of cystitis.

Having cystitis is very common and can occur to anyone, however, with proper treatment and in the hands of a good urologist in Ghaziabad, it is a risk-free problem.

What treatments are available?

The first and most important thing is to go to the best urologist in Greater Noida to confirm the origin of cystitis and to consider our entire profile with blood and urine tests and any background that can provide more information.

Normally, if it is caused by a bacterium it will prescribe antibiotics and if it is caused by a virus it will prescribe antivirals. As general recommendations, urologist in Greater Noida recommends drinking large amounts of water to clean the urinary ducts well and avoid tobacco, alcohol intake and high-spice meals during episodes of cystitis.

What can I do to avoid getting cystitis or improving symptoms?

Food habits. Some foods and drinks are discouraged when the patient has an episode of cystitis, such as very strong or fermented cheeses, dairy enriched with cream, very fatty meats, sausages, bacon, black pudding, undercooked pasta, candied or frosted fruits, fruits in syrup, alcoholic beverages, coffee or tea with high theine content, confectionery products, chocolates and high fat fries. Instead, it is advisable to add to the diet natural juices, especially American cranberry, vegetables (some of them raw), fish, meats and eggs in the rations that marks a healthy diet.

Hygienic habits. In addition to proper hygiene in the genital area, it is not excessive not to eliminate the genital natural flora, but that does not be in shortening either, in the case of women it is advisable that when urinating they clean from front to back. A safety measure to prevent cystitis is to urinate after sex, eliminating potential toxins that access the urethra and cause infection. Finally add that it is necessary not to stay long periods of time with a wet or damp swimsuit in the genital area, which is a conducive focus to give rise to infections.

urinary incontinence

What Are the Types of Urinary Incontinence And Their Symptoms?

Types of urinary incontinence

There are mainly two types of urinary incontinence. Stress and urge urinary incontinence. Some women, especially older women, have both.

Stress urinary incontinence occurs when you sneeze, cough, laugh, jog, or do activities that put pressure on your bladder. It is the most common type of urinary incontinence of bladder control problems in women.

The female urinary incontinence emergency occurs when you have a great urge to urinate but cannot reach the bathroom in time. This can happen even when the bladder has only a small amount of urine. Some women may not have any warning before accidental leakage of urine occurs. Other women may leak urine when they drink water or when they hear or touch running water. An overactive bladder is a type of urinary incontinence, but not everyone with an overactive bladder loses urine.

What are the symptoms of different types of urinary incontinence?

Symptoms of stress urinary incontinence:

  • Involuntary release of urine, especially when coughing, sneezing or laughing
  • Leakage of small to moderate amount of urine

Symptoms of urge urinary incontinence:

  • Frequent and sudden uncontrollable need to urinate
  • You may have a moderate to a large amount of urine, although a small amount is possible

It is common for a person to have symptoms of both types of incontinence. This is called mixed incontinence.

What causes the different types of urinary incontinence?

Stress incontinence can be caused by childbirth, weight gain, or other conditions that stretch the muscles of the pelvic floor. When these muscles cannot hold the bladder properly, the bladder falls off and pushes against the vagina. You cannot tighten the muscles that close over the urethra. Therefore, urine can leak due to the extra pressure on the bladder when you cough, sneeze, laugh, exercise, or do other activities.

Urgent incontinence is caused by an overactive bladder muscle that pushes urine out of the bladder. It can be caused by bladder irritation, emotional stress, or brain conditions such as Parkinson’s disease or a stroke. Urologist in Noida often doesn’t know what causes it.

How are the types of urinary incontinence diagnosed?

To diagnose the cause of urinary incontinence, urologist in Ghaziabad asks people about their medical history and perform a physical exam. It may be easier for you to answer questions if you keep avoiding the dairy for 3-4 days before seeing your urologist in Greater Noida.

To check for stress incontinence, your urologist in Vaishali may ask you to cough while standing.

Sometimes urologist in Delhi request these tests:

  • Bladder stress test and Bonney test.
  • Pad test, which can help show how much urine is leaking. They give you an absorbent pad that has been heavy. You use the pad until urine leaks, and then return the pad to weigh yourself again. The increased weight of the pad provides an estimate of the amount of urine that leaked.
  • Urinalysis and urine culture.
  • Urodynamic tests. The urodynamic test is expensive. It is usually only done if you are considering surgery or if treatment has not worked for you and you need to know more about the cause. It provides a more advanced way to check the bladder function.
  • Cystometry, a series of tests to measure bladder pressure at different levels of fullness.
  • Post-emptying residual measures, which measure the amount of urine that remains in the bladder after urinating.
  • X-ray or ultrasound. These are used to examine changes in the position of the bladder and urethra during urination, cough, or straining.

If the cause of the incontinence is not identified by the above tests, more thorough examinations may be required.

prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer – The Most Common Form of Cancer Among Men

The prostate along with the seminal vesicles are accessory seminal glands that produce seminal plasma from which sperm is formed. The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.

Its size changes with age, in younger men being the size of a nut and weighing 15-20g, but maybe much larger in older men.

Prostate cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland.

Types

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (95%), developing from the cells of the gland.

Other types of prostate cancer include sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, transient cell carcinomas; these types being rare.

Some types of prostate cancer can grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly.

In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some young people) who died from other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them in their lifetime.

Precancerous disorders of the prostate

Some urologist in Noida suggests that prostate cancer starts as a precancerous condition, although this is not yet known. These conditions are sometimes discovered during a biopsy.

1. Intraepithelial prostatic neoplasia: there are changes in the way the prostate cells look under the microscope; based on the abnormal appearance of the cell types, they are classified as:

A. Low-grade: patterns of prostate cells that appear almost normal;
B. High-grade: abnormal cell models.

2. Proliferative inflammatory atrophy: the cells look smaller than normal, coexisting with signs of inflammation in the area.

Symptoms

Clinical:

  • Anamnesis: dysuria, pollakiuria, pelvic pain.
  • Clinical examination – local: assessment of the volume of the prostate by rectal cough; general examination.

Laboratory findings:

  • Endorectal prostatic ultrasound; urography iv; Blood PSA (men without prostatic neoplasm have PSA <4ng / ml); prostate biopsy; CT; MRI; lymph node biopsy; the degree of prostate cancer.

The degree of cancer is based on how abnormal the cells look under the microscope. The Gleason score assigns degrees based on how much the tumor resembles normal prostate tissue.

If the tumor closely resembles normal prostate tissue, it is assigned grade 1. If the tumor has abnormal cells it has a grade 5. Grades 2 and 4 have characteristics between these two extremes.

Because prostate cancers often have areas of varying degrees, one degree is attributed to the two areas that make up most of cancer.

These two classes are added to get the Gleason score (also called the Gleason amount). Theoretically, the Gleason score can be between 2 and 10, but scores below 6 are rarely used.

Prostate cancer is often divided into 3 groups, based on the Gleason score:

  • Cancer with Gleason score 6 or lower is called well-differentiated;
  • Cancer with a Gleason score of 7 is called moderately differentiated;
  • Cancer with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 is called poorly differentiated.

Risk factors

  • Age: Prostate cancer is rarely found in men under the age of 40, the risk of developing it increases rapidly after age 50.
  • Ethnicity: Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in African-American men and less frequently in Asian-American and Hispanic / Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites. The reasons for these ethnic-racial differences are unclear.
  • Family history: having a father or brother with prostate cancer, the risk of having this disease is greater than double.
  • Genetic changes: Inherited mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes increase the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. Mutations in these genes (especially BRCA2) may also increase the risk of prostatic neoplasm in some men.

Staging

A staging system is a standard way for the cancer care team to describe how far cancer has spread.

The most commonly used prostate cancer staging system is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (TNMS) system, which was most recently updated in January 2018.

The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 key elements:

  • The size of the main tumor (category T);
  • If it has spread in the nearby lymph nodes (category N);
  • If it has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body (category M);
  • PSA level at the time of diagnosis;
  • The grade group (based on the Gleason score), which represents a measure of the probability of rapid growth and spread of cancer. This is determined by the results of a prostate biopsy (or surgery).

Treatment

It is important to discuss all options of prostate cancer treatment in Delhi, including goals and possible side effects. Depending on the age, the stage of cancer and its degree, comorbidities, there are the following treatment options: surgical treatment, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy.

Surveillance

After radiotherapy and/or radical surgery: general clinical examination: urinary signs, rectal cough; PSA; bone scintigraphy;

Rhythm: At 2-6 months, in the first 3 years;

After hormone therapy: clinical supervision: general condition, urinary signs, rectal cough; biological monitoring: PSA, testosterone, alkaline phosphatase; radiological and/or scintigraphic tracking.